Defending Childrens Rights

Convention Child

Convention on the Rights of the Child
 Convention against Discrimination in Education 1960

Convention on the Rights of the Child

Adopted in November 1989 (23)

  Introduction

  The States Parties to the present Convention:

According to the principles of the Charter of the United Nations to recognize the inalienable rights, equality and dignity of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,

Keeping in mind that members of the United Nations Charter, faith in fundamental human rights and dignity and value of human beings and their determination to promote social progress and better living standards with greater freedoms, the freedoms previously announced,

With the recognition that the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in international conventions on human rights and has agreed to each of the people without any discrimination as to race, color, sex, language, religion, political opinion, national or social position, birth or other characteristics, of all rights and freedoms in the Convention and the declaration, entitled, respectively,

And Whereas the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights has declared that childhood is requires special care and assistance,

Convinced that the family as the main component of society and the natural environment for the growth and well-being of all its members, particularly children, should receive the support and assistance required so that it can play their responsibilities in society,

By identifying the child to full and balanced development of your character should be in a family environment and in space (full) of happiness, love and understanding is great,

Due to the fact that the child should be fully prepared to live an individual in society and in the light of the stated ideals of the United Nations Charter, in particular peace, respect, tolerance, freedom, equality and solidarity be enlarged,

Keeping in mind the need for child care in the Geneva Declaration on the Rights of the Child in 1924 stated in the Declaration on the Rights of the Child on November 20, 1959 the General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (particularly in cases 23 and 24), the Convention on the rights of social, economic and cultural (especially Article 10) and in the documents and rulings of specialized agencies and international organizations concerned with the welfare of children is recognized,

According to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights stipulates that “children due to lack of complete physical and mental growth and support for the need of care, including appropriate legal protection, before and after birth”,

Having regard to the provisions of the Declaration on Social and Legal Principles relating to the protection and welfare of children with special mention to the issue of child adoption and foster national and international law, United Nations Standard Minimum about justice for minors (the Beijing Rules) and the Declaration on the Protection of Women and children in emergency situations and wars, with the recognition that all countries in the world are children living under difficult conditions and these children need special attention, according to traditional values ​​and culture of each nation in uniform support and education Child,

As well as the importance of international cooperation for improving the living conditions of children in all countries, particularly developing countries, were awarded to the following agreements:

Part 1

Article 1

  The children of this Convention, the human being below the age of 18 years unless under the law applicable to the child, the age of puberty is detected.

Article 2

  1. The States Parties to the Convention on the rights which the Convention is intended for all children who are living in their jurisdiction without discrimination because of race, color, sex, language, religion, political opinion, nationality, social status Ethnic , property, disability, birth or other personal status of their parents or legal guardian will be respected and guaranteed.

  2. States Parties shall take all necessary measures to ensure the protection of children against all forms of discrimination, punishment on the basis of the status, activities, expressed opinions, or beliefs of the parents, legal guardians or family members to take.

Article 3

  1. In all actions concerning children, by public or private social welfare institutions, courts, administrative authorities or legal bodies, the interests of the children are the most important considerations.

  2. States Parties to the Convention assumed that the support and care necessary for the well-being of children, according to the rights and duties of their parents, guardians or other persons legally responsible for them, ensure that the appropriate legal and administrative measures in this regard will normally respectively.

  3. The States Parties to the Convention will ensure that the institutions, services and facilities that are responsible for the care and protection of children by the competent authorities in accordance with criteria that particularly in the areas of safety, health, number of staff and institutions supervision and inspection, have been determined.

Article 4

  The States Parties to the Convention on the legal and administrative measures necessary for the realization of the rights recognized in the present Convention shall be. The States Parties to the Convention regarding the rights of economic, social and cultural measures in order to use the maximum of their available resources and, if necessary, within the framework of international cooperation to take.

Article 5

  States Parties shall respect the responsibilities, rights and duties of parents or, if applicability, elder family members through local customs can be explained, and guardians or other persons legally responsible for the child in a way that can maintain and develop abilities child, guiding the child of the rights recognized in the present Convention to impose necessary, to take action.

Article 6

  1. States Parties shall recognize the inherent right of every child to life.

  2. States Parties to the Convention for the survival and development of children the maximum facilities will ensure.

Article 7

  1. The birth of a child shall be registered immediately after birth and shall have the right to a name, acquire a nationality and, whenever possible, to identify their parents and are placed in their care.

  2. States Parties to the Convention on the rights in accordance with national law and their obligations under the relevant international instruments in this field, in particular where the child would otherwise be considered non-performance of refugees, be deemed to be binding.

Article 8

  1. The States Parties to the Convention on the right of children to preserve their identity, including nationality, name and family relations and non-intervention shall ensure by law.

  2. Where a child is illegally deprived of some or all of the rights to their identity, the Member States support and necessary assistance to exercise the above rights to take rapid.

Article 9

  1. The States Parties to the Convention to ensure that they are not separated children despite the wishes of their parents, unless the competent authorities under the applicable laws and regulations and the judicial investigation determined that this separation is in favor of the children. Such decisions may in particular cases such as abuse and neglect by parents or children or when separated from their parents and be necessary in this case should be decided on the accommodation of children.

  2. In each of the proceedings of the first paragraph of Article 9 should be given to all interested parties the opportunity to participate in the proceedings and to express their opinions.

  3. The States Parties to the Convention, the right of the child who is separated from one or both parents, to maintain personal relations and direct contact with parents that regularly will be respected, except in cases where this would be contrary to the interests of the child.

  4. When the separation of government measures such as the detention, imprisonment, exile, deportation or death (including death that occurs during the detention of a person) one or both parents or children, the State Party shall, upon request, parents or the child or, if appropriate, a family member in the family will be missing essential information about individual property, unless giving such information is detrimental to the child.The States Parties to the Convention will ensure that submission of this request is in itself not cause consequences for the individuals concerned.

Article 10

  1. The States Parties to the Convention in accordance with the obligations set out in paragraph 1 of Article 9, asking the child or his parents to enter or leave the country for joining this family, the State Party to the Convention with a positive and humane and expeditious manner will be investigated. The States Parties to the Convention on the positive and humane and expeditious manner will be investigated. The States Parties to the Convention will ensure that the consequences for the applicant to submit such requests and their members will not be followed.

  2. A child whose parent has the right to live in separate countries apart from exceptional circumstances personal relations and direct contact with both parents on a regular basis at all times.For this purpose and in accordance with the obligations set out in paragraph 2 of Article 9, States Parties to the Convention on the rights of parents and children to leave any country, including their national country to any other country will honor.The right to leave any country subject to limitations prescribed by law and to protect national security, public order, public health or morals or the rights or freedoms of others or other rights recognized in the Convention is necessary.

Article 11

  1. The States Parties to the Convention on measures to combat trafficking transfer and non-return of children (residents) will take off.

  2. To this end, States Parties to the Convention to conclude bilateral or multilateral agreements or to encourage acceptance of existing agreements.

Article 12

  1. The States Parties to the Convention shall ensure that a child is able to form their opinions, these ideas can be freely about all matters relating to his expression. The views of children must be respected in accordance with his age and maturity.

  2. For this purpose, particularly for children are provided opportunities to each of the executive and judicial proceedings related to him directly or through a representative or an appropriate personal in a way that is in accordance with the provisions of national law enforcement, expressed the.

Article 13

  1. The child has the right to freedom of expression. This right includes freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, written or oral or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media the children.

  2. The exercise of this right may be subject to certain restrictions, but these restrictions is limited to cases prescribed by law and are necessary.

(A) For respect of the rights or reputations of others

(B) For the protection of national security or public order or for general health or ethical issues.

Article 14

  1. The States Parties to the Convention on the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion to respect the child.

  2. States Parties to the Convention on the rights and duties of parents or other legal guardian guide children to exercise his rights in a way that would promote the talents and abilities of the child, respect the.

  3. limitation of freedom of expression and religion only in accordance with law and to protect public safety, order, health or morals or the fundamental rights and freedoms of others is public, is limited.

Article 15

  1. The States Parties to the Convention on the Rights of the Child about the freedom of association and peaceful assembly to recognize.

  2. With the exception of restrictions prescribed by law or to protect the interests of national security or public safety, public order, public health or morals or the rights and freedoms of others is no limit on the exercise of these rights does not exist.

Article 16

  1. private affairs, family, or correspondence, no child be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference, or the desecration.

  2. children against such interference or protection of the law is violated.

Article 17

  The States Parties to the Convention to recognize the significant functions of the mass media and children’s access to information and material from various sources and international, particularly those related to the promotion of social welfare, spiritual or moral, and physical and mental health to ensure that he is. In this regard, countries take the following actions:

  1. A) Encourage the mass media to disseminate information and material to children’s social and cultural uses and is also consistent with the spirit of Article 29.

  2. B) Promoting international cooperation in the production, exchange and dissemination of such information and material from various sources of cultural, national and international

  3. C) Encourage the production and dissemination of children’s books

  4. D) Encourage the mass media to pay particular attention to the needs related to teaching children who belong to minority groups or indigenous.

  5. E) encourage the development of appropriate policies in order to protect the child from information and material that harms the well-being according to the provisions of Articles 13 and 18.

Article 18

  1. The States Parties to the Convention maximum efforts to ensure recognition of the principle that the child’s parents have common responsibilities for the growth and development of children, to take. The major responsibility of parents or legal guardian are responsible for the growth and development of children. Their basic problem (keep) Relief interests of the child.

  2. States Parties to the Convention in order to guarantee and promote the rights stated in the Convention requires cooperation with parents and legal guardians to educate children to take responsibilities for the implementation and development of institutions, facilities and services for child care guarantee .

  3. States Parties shall take all necessary measures in order to ensure that children with working parents are entitled to use the facilities and services related to child care to take.

Article 19

  1. The States Parties to the Convention, all legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms of physical and psychological violence, damage or abuse, neglect or neglect, abuse or exploitation, including sexual abuse while the child under parental care or legal guardian or any other person is, to take.

  2. Such protective measures should, where appropriate, include effective procedures for the establishment of social programs to provide necessary support for the child and those responsible for her care and to the protection of bugs and also to prevent, diagnose, reporting, referral, investigation, treatment and follow-up of Bdrftaryhayy mentioned and is also dependent on the support of the prosecution.

Article 20

  1. The child shall be temporarily or permanently deprived of their family environment and the interests of the government and should be placed under the care and assistance.

  2. States Parties to the Convention should care according to their national laws ensure alternative for these children.

  3. Such care includes the increases, including the appointment of a guardian or trustee of Islamic law, adoption or if necessary, sending children to suitable institutions for the care of children.When reviewing the optimal solution must to continue in the upbringing of children, ethnicity, religion, culture and language of children is of particular interest.

Article 21

  Countries where adoption is recognized and authorized system they should give priority to the interests of the child and observe the following points.

  1. A) ensure that the adoption is done only by competent authorities in accordance with applicable laws and regulations and based on credible information that the adoption is determined according to his position in relation to the parents, relatives and legal guardians are allowed and if satisfaction appropriate persons to acquire the necessary regulations for adoption.

  2. B) ensure that if a child can not be placed in an appropriate manner in their own country under the authority of a family, adoption in other countries will be examined as another solution.

  3. C) ensure that children who are accepted in other countries care and when adoption is legal in your country that are exempt.

  4. D) adopt all necessary measures to ensure that children in other countries accept the underlying financial interests is not relevant persons.

  5. E) if necessary, further the objectives of the present article by concluding bilateral or multilateral agreements or arrangements and efforts in this context to ensure that child adoption in another country by the competent organs or authorities.

Article 22

  1. States Parties shall take appropriate measures to ensure that a child who is seeking refugee status or asylum is considered, what is your parents or someone else, in accordance with local laws and regulations and international support and the necessary humanitarian assistance and related rights humanitarian or human rights in this Convention or other documents required by the above-mentioned countries are committed to them, to take.

  2. To this end, States Parties to the Convention at its discretion with the United Nations and other competent international organizations or NGOs that work with the United Nations to protect and assist these children and to trace the parents or other family members of refugee children and to learn family members will work together for reintegration.If not managed to find parents or other family members with children as stated in the Convention, just like a child temporarily or permanently deprived of a family environment for any reason, will be treated.

Article 23

  1. The States Parties to the Convention recognize that a mentally or physically impaired child who was to be in conditions which ensure dignity and increased self-reliance and facilitate the active participation of children in society, and their full-grown and become a decent living.

  2. States Parties to the Convention on the rights of disabled children to special care, to recognize and provide this care on the basis of the child’s parents or authority and is subject to availability of resources, to these children and those who are responsible for taking care of him, encourage and guarantee.

  3. Recognizing the special needs of a disabled child, assistance provided for in paragraph 2 of this Article, if possible, should be free and taking into account the financial resources of the parents or the authorities of the child and should be able to children with disabilities that effective access planed training, education and health care services, rehabilitation services, preparation for employment and opportunities in a way that achieves the highest perfection child’s social and personal development, including cultural and spiritual progress, he will have.

  4. The States Parties to the Convention in the light of international cooperation, exchange of information on preventive health care and medical treatment, psychological and rehabilitation of disabled children, including dissemination of and access to information concerning methods of rehabilitation, education and professional services to enable the states parties to the Convention to advance their skills and abilities and extend their experience in these areas will increase.In this regard, particular attention will be paid to the needs of developing countries.

Article 24

  1. The States Parties to the Convention on the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health and to facilities for treatment and rehabilitation to recognize. They are to ensure that no child is achieving this right and will not be denied access to health care, will try.

  2. States Parties to the Convention subject to the full implementation of this right will follow, especially in the following areas will adopt appropriate methods.

  3. A) reducing the mortality rate of infants and children

  4. B) ensure the provision of medical consultations and primary health care

  5. C) to combat disease and malnutrition, including within the framework of primary health care through applying the technologies available and by providing nutritious food and safe drinking water and consider the dangers of environmental pollution.

  6. D) ensuring pre and postnatal mothers

  7. E) ensuring that all segments of society, especially parents and children of the advantages of breastfeeding, hygiene and environmental sanitation and the prevention of information incidents and access to education and early child health and nutrition information on the use of protected.

And) the development of preventive health care, provide guidance for parents and family planning education and services.

  1. States Parties shall take all necessary and appropriate measures to remove traditional treatment methods and superstitions about health Khvahndavrd children to practice.

  2. The States Parties to the Convention to promote and encourage international cooperation to achieve progressively the full realization of the rights recognized in the present Convention can maintain.In this regard, special attention will be on the needs of developing countries.

Article 25

  The States Parties to the Convention on the right of the child by the competent authorities for the purpose of care, protection or physical and mental health, family or institution is allowed to carry out periodical assessment and treatment of children and determine the course of treatment for children and states maintenance He recognizes.

Article 26

  1. The States Parties to the Convention on the right to social security, including social insurance for all children to recognize and take appropriate measures to achieve the full realization of this right in accordance with national legislation, to take.

  2. The benefits should, if appropriate, according to the interests and conditions of children and persons who bear responsibility for him as well as any other consideration relating to the use of these advantages, in the interests of the child be supplied.

Article 27

  1. The States Parties to the Convention on the right of every child to a standard of living adequate for the development of the physical, mental, spiritual, moral and social to recognize.

  2. The parent or other guardian, a major responsibility to ensure adequate living conditions for the development of children in terms of their strengths and excellent facilities are responsible.

  3. The States Parties to the Convention, in accordance with national conditions and within their facilities, the necessary measures to assist parents and others responsible for the child to exercise the right to take and, if necessary, financial assistance and support programs, particularly with regard to nutrition , clothing and housing will be provided.

  4. States Parties shall take appropriate measures to ensure that the costs of children by parents or other persons responsible financial responsibility for the child, both within and outside the country to take.In cases where the person responsible for the child’s financial affairs of countries, children living in different countries, States Parties to the Convention on the adoption of international agreements or the conclusion of such agreements, as well as making other necessary arrangements will be accelerated.

Article 28

  1. States Parties shall recognize the right of the child to education and the right to obtain a gradual and based on equal opportunities, will take the following actions:

  2. A) universal primary education compulsory and available free to

  3. B) encourage the development of different forms of secondary education, including vocational training and general access to such training for all children and take necessary measures such as providing free education and providing financial support if necessary.

  4. C) access to higher education for all and on the ability of any appropriate course.

  5. D) the availability of educational and vocational information and guidance for all children.

  6. E) measures to encourage regular attendance of children in schools and reduce absenteeism.

  7. States Parties shall take all necessary measures to ensure that discipline in schools in accordance with the preservation of human dignity children and in accordance with the present Convention, to take.

  8. The States Parties to the Convention on international cooperation in matters relating to education, particularly in the elimination of ignorance and illiteracy throughout the world and facilitating access to scientific and technical information and modern teaching methods, will encourage.In this regard, special attention will be on the needs of developing countries.

Article 29

  1. The States Parties to the Convention agree that the following should be the education of the children.

  2. A) The full development of personality, talents and mental and physical abilities of children.

  3. B) The development of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms and principles in the UN Charter.

  4. C) The development of respect for parents, cultural identity, language and literary values ​​and the country in which they live, and the birth of his child and different civilizations civilization.

  5. D) The preparation of the child for responsible life in a free society and a spirit (full) of understanding, peace, tolerance, equality of sexes, and friendship among all peoples, ethnic, national and religious and other parties.

  6. E) the development of respect for the natural environment.

  7. From any part of this Article and Article 28 should be interpreted so as to disturb the freedom of individuals and organizations to establish and administer educational institutions that are mentioned in paragraph 1 of this Article according to the principles and conditions mentioned in accordance with the minimum standards is created by the government, should be considered.

Article 30

  In countries where ethnic and religious minorities or indigenous people live, a child belonging to such minorities shall, along with other members of his group the right to education and to practice their faith or culture and their language have.

Article 31

  1. The States Parties to Convention on the Rights of the Child for recreation and relaxation and games and activities appropriate to their age and to participate freely in cultural life and to recognize art.

  2. States Parties to the Convention on the right of the child to fully participate in cultural and artistic life respected, and develop and provide opportunities to participate in cultural and artistic activities to encourage creative and recreational activities.

Article 32

  1. The States Parties to the Convention on the right of the child to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is harmful or stop at his training establishment or for physical health, mental, spiritual, moral and social development is harmful to children recognize.

  2. States Parties shall take the necessary measures legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to ensure the implementation of this Article to take.In this regard, and according to relevant provisions in other international instruments, States Parties shall in particular take the following into consideration:

  3. A) specify a minimum age or minimum ages for work.

  4. B) determining the appropriate regulation of working hours and conditions.

  5. C) determining or imposing other sanctions appropriate guarantees to ensure the effective implementation of this Article.

Article 33

  States Parties shall take all necessary measures, including legislative, administrative, social, educational, for the protection of children against illicit use of narcotics and drugs, as defined in the relevant international treaties and to prevent the use of children in illicit manufacturing and trafficking of such substances take.

Article 34

  The States Parties to the Convention assumed that children from all forms of abuse and sexual Astsmarhay support. Therefore, these countries, especially national, bilateral and multilateral action in order to avoid making the following cases.

  1. A) encouraging or forcing children to engage in any sexual activities.

  2. B) the use of sexual exploitation of children in prostitution and other illegal acts.

  3. C) use and exploitation of children in the exercise of Prnvgrafyk content.

Article 35

  States Parties shall take all necessary measures national, bilateral and multilateral to prevent the abduction, sale or trafficking of children to take any form and in any order.

Article 36

  The States Parties to the Convention of children against all forms of exploitation prejudicial to any aspect of the child’s welfare, would support.

Article 37

  The States Parties to the Convention implementing the following measures are assumed.

  1. A) No child shall be subjected to torture or other cruel, inhuman or be contrary to human dignity.Neither capital punishment nor life imprisonment without possibility of parole for children under 18 years can not be applied.

  2. B) No child shall illegally and arbitrarily imprisoned.Arrest, detention or imprisonment of a child shall be in conformity with the law and as a last resort and for the shortest time possible should be invoked.

  3. C) child prisoners because of the inherent human need, human behavior and be respectful, so that needs to be considered regarding his age.Especially child prisoners should be separated from adults unless it is contrary to the interests of the child.Except in exceptional circumstances a child has the right to be back with his family through letters and visits.

  4. D) Every child prisoners should have the right to prompt access to legal advice or other necessary assistance as well as the right to challenge the legality of their detention before a court or other competent authority, independent and impartial and rapid decision-making is important in such cases.

Article 38

  1. The States Parties to the Convention are assumed by the provisions of international humanitarian law during armed conflict relating to children is respect.

  2. States Parties shall take appropriate measures to ensure that any persons under 15 years do not participate directly in hostilities, will be common.

  3. The States Parties to the Convention on the employment of persons less than 15 years will they not in their armed forces.These countries to hire people who are over 15 and under 18 years of age, priority will make it bigger.

  4. The States Parties to the Convention, in accordance with its obligations under international humanitarian law to protect civilians during armed conflict, all practical measures to ensure protection and care of children affected by (the consequences of) war are to serve won.

Article 39

  States Parties shall take all necessary measures to accelerate healing of physical and mental and social compromise a child victim neglect, exploitation, abuse, torture and other acts of violence, inhuman or degrading or war, to take. The process of recovery and reintegration should result in an environment where health, self reliance and respect for the child, be done.

Article 40

  1. Member States concerning child offenders or accused of violating the criminal law recognizes the right of their children to behave in accordance with the principles and values. This increases the child’s respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms of others, consider the child’s age and taking into account the child’s age increases his request for a compromise with the community and to undertake a constructive role is.

  2. For this purpose and in accordance with relevant provisions of international instruments, States Parties shall in particular ensure the following cases:

  3. A) No child shall be due at the time of the commission of acts not prohibited by national or international law, accused or guilty.

  4. B) Every child accused or convicted of violating the criminal law, at least Tamynhay will be on:

1) to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law.

2) direct information and fast charges against him, if necessary, through parents or legal guardian, and (right) a legal advice or other assistance in preparing and presenting a defense bill.

3) clarifying the situation as soon as possible by the authorities or independent and impartial judicial organ in a fair trial in the presence of a lawyer or other legal aid, except that it is not in the interest of the child is diagnosed, particularly with regard to age, location or parent or legal guardian of the child.

4) not to be compelled to give testimony or statements fault to study and examine adverse witnesses and witnesses him permission to participate on equal terms.

5) Access to government officials or judicial organ competent, impartial and independent higher according to the law if Mjrmshnakhthshdn

6) The right to an interpreter free of charge if the child is able to understand the language used (in court) is not.

7) complete confidentiality issue during all stages of the proceedings.

  1. Member States to improve laws and regulations and the establishment of authorities and institutions, especially relating to children accused or convicted of violating criminal law, they will try and will take the following measures in particular:

  2. A) To maintain the minimum age for criminal violations of the law in such a way below this age, children are lacking criminal responsibility.

  3. B) if appropriate and desire, the regulations in order to deal with such children without resorting to judicial proceedings, providing that human rights and legal safeguards are fully respected.

  4. Supply issues such as maintenance regulations, guidance, supervision, counseling, suspension of punishment, adoption, education and vocational training programs and other actions to ensure the well-being of children, behavioral changes and they will be committed offense Policy .

Article 41

  None of the (material) the present Convention rules that for the realization of children’s rights is effective and does not affect the following components:

  1. A) the law of the Member State, or

  2. B) International law in force in that country.

Part 2

Article 42

  Member States are required to be fit and active principles and provisions of the Convention in ways and in a way similar to adults and children themselves.

Article 43

  1. In order to assess the progress of Member States to fulfill their obligations to the present Convention shall be a committee that will be mentioned on the Rights of the Child to perform his duties, be formed.

  2. The Committee consists of ten experts with excellent location in terms of ethical and competent in the areas mentioned in this Convention, will be.Committee members are elected by States Parties from among their nationals and shall serve in their personal responsibility.In this regard, the geographic distribution of major legal systems and particular attention will be.

  3. The members of the Committee from the list of candidates by Member States elected by secret ballot.Each member country may nominate one person from among its own nationals.

  4. The initial election committee in less than 6 months after the date of the implementation of the Convention and then every 2 years will be carried out.At least 4 months prior to each election, the Secretary General wrote to the Member States to cooperate in determining their candidates two months.The Secretary-General subsequently nominated by alphabetical list of entities and countries that nominated them, prepared and submit it to the States Parties.

  5. Select the meetings of States Parties will be opened by the Secretary General in the headquarters of the United Nations should be performed.At the meeting in which two-thirds of member countries will come into force, committee members from among those with the most votes and an absolute majority of Member States have achieved votes of the representatives present and voting, are elected.

  6. Committee members are elected for 2 years.If the candidate re-elected these people are reused.Term of five members elected at the first election ends at the end of two years; immediately after the first election the names of these five will be determined by lot by the Chairman of the meeting.

  7. In case of death, resignation or declaring any reason unable to perform the duty of members of the Committee, where the other members nominated from among its nationals, subject to confirmation by the committee of experts to serve on the rest of the elect.

  8. The Committee would impose its own rules.

  9. The Committee shall elect its officers for a period of 2 years.

  10. Committee meetings are normally at the headquarters of the United Nations or any other convenient place as determined by the Committee, was established.Committee’s annual ordinary meeting.For meetings of the Committee at a meeting with the participating Member States to determine the present Convention and with the approval of the General Assembly and can be changed if necessary.

  11. The Secretary-General of the United Nations equipment and personnel necessary for the effective functioning of the Committee shall be provided under the present Convention.

  12. With the approval of the General Assembly, the members of the committee that will be formed under the present Convention, during the period of service of the United Nations budget and on such terms as the General Assembly may decide, receive salaries.

Article 44

  1. Member States assumed that the United Nations Secretary General reports on measures for the realization of the rights recognized in the present Convention have taken and the progress made ​​to submit to the Committee:

  2. A) Within two years after the entry into force of the Convention in the country concerned

  3. B) and then every 5 years

  4. reports that are prepared in accordance with article must fulfill the obligations factors and difficulties that may exist in the way, show.The report also must include sufficient information to give a comprehensive picture of the implementation of the Convention in the country concerned.

  5. A country that has a comprehensive initial report to the Committee, could provide political information previously accordance with paragraph 1 (a) of this article provides refrain.

  6. The Committee may seek additional information from the Member States on the implementation of the Convention.

  7. The Committee every two years by the Economic and Social Council reports on its activities to the General Assembly will be provided.

  8. Member States should their reports widely available to the public at the national share.

Article 45

  In order to accelerate the effective implementation of the Convention and to encourage international cooperation in the fields contained therein:

  1. A) The specialized agencies, the United Nations Children’s Fund and other organizations in the field of empowerment of the organization can monitor the implementation of the provisions of this Convention.The Committee may, as the case of the specialized agencies, the United Nations Children’s Fund and other competent bodies on the grounds that the authority is concerned, to provide professional views on implementation of the Convention, are invited to participate.The Committee also allow the specialized agencies, the United Nations Children’s Fund and other United Nations bodies in the implementation of the Convention on the grounds that he is related to their mandate, provide reports.

  2. B) The Committee could Jsb reports that contain a request or require Member States to cooperate and technical assistance to attach comments and suggestions to the specialized agencies, the United Nations Children’s Fund and other competent bodies send.

  3. C) The Committee may recommend that the Secretary-General to the General Assembly decides on its behalf studies on specific issues relating to children’s rights assume.

  4. D) The Committee may, according to information received, the application of Articles 44 and 45 of the Convention, and general comments announce its recommendations.Such suggestions and comments will be sent to the Member State concerned and associated comments will be reported to the General Assembly member states.

Section 3

Article 46

  This Convention shall be open for signature to all countries.

Article 47

  This Convention is subject to ratification. The instruments of ratification with the Secretary-General of the United Nations will remain.

Article 48

  All countries can become members of this Convention, the membership documents will be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article 49

  1. This Convention shall be 30 days after the date of the deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification or membership to UN Secretary-General will be applicable.

  2. For each State deposited after the twentieth instrument of ratification or membership, or to join it becomes ratified this Convention, the Convention 30 days after the time reposit membership documents or approved by the State will be applicable.

Article 50

  1. Each Member State may propose an amendment and transmit it to the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Secretary-General, the proposed amendment it with other members of their shares and the formation of the Conference of the Parties to study the proposals and voting on the polls. In the event that within four months after the announcement of the Secretary-General, at least one third of Member States, in favor of such a conference, the Secretary-General on the United Nations Assistance will inaugurate the conference. Amendment adopted by a majority of States Parties present at the conference shall be mailed for approval to the General Assembly.

  2. Any amendment adopted in accordance with the first paragraph of this Article shall be adopted, after the approval of the General Assembly of the United Nations and accepted by a two-thirds majority of States Parties will be applicable.

  3. After the entry into force of an amendment accepted only those that are bound to implement it.Other Member States are still required to enforce these conventions and other previous amendments which they have accepted.

Article 51

  1. UN Secretary-General states at the time of ratification or text comments received and will be available to other countries.

  2. Comments contrary to the purposes and objectives of the Convention are prohibited and will be received.

  3. Comments can be withdrawn any time by notification addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.The Secretary-General will put all countries in the process.This seems to confirm the date on which the Secretary-General, will be applicable.

Article 52

  Member States can join by sending written notice to the Secretary General of the Convention. This one year from the date of receipt of the notification by the Secretary General will be applicable.

Article 53

  UN Secretary-General, as depositary of the Convention has been selected.

Article 54

  The original of the present Convention with translations of Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish, all of which are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Fully authorized representatives who are authorized by their respective Governments, signed this Convention.


Convention against Discrimination in Education 1960

Paris, 14 December 1960

Depositary – Entry into force – Authoritative texts – Registration at the UN – States Parties – Declarations and Reservations – Territorial Application – Monitoring
UNESDOC – (PDF) English – French – Spanish – Russian

The General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, meeting in Paris from 14 November to 15 December 1960, at its eleventh session,

Recalling that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights asserts the principle of non-discrimination and proclaims that every person has the right to education,

Considering that discrimination in education is a violation of rights enunciated in that Declaration,

Considering that, under the terms of its Constitution, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization has the purpose of instituting collaboration among the nations with a view to furthering for all universal respect for human rights and equality of educational opportunity,

Recognizing that, consequently, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, while respecting the diversity of national educational systems, has the duty not only to proscribe any form of discrimination in education but also to promote equality of opportunity and treatment for all in education,

Having before It proposals concerning the different aspects of discrimination in education, constituting item 17.1.4 of the agenda of the session,

Having decided at its tenth session that this question should be made the subject of an international convention as well as of recommendations to Member States,

Adopts this Convention on the fourteenth day of December 1960.

Article 1

1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term `discrimination’ includes any distinction, exclusion, limitation or preference which, being based on race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, economic condition or birth, has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing equality of treatment in education and in particular:

(a) Of depriving any person or group of persons of access to education of any type or at any level;

(b) Of limiting any person or group of persons to education of an inferior standard;

(c) Subject to the provisions of Article 2 of this Convention, of establishing or maintaining separate educational systems or institutions for persons or groups of persons; or

(d) Of inflicting on any person or group of persons conditions which are in-compatible with the dignity of man.

2. For the purposes of this Convention, the term `education’ refers to all types and levels of education, and includes access to education, the standard and quality of education, and the conditions under which it is given.

Article 2

When permitted in a State, the following situations shall not be deemed to constitute discrimination, within the meaning of Article 1 of this Convention:

(a) The establishment or maintenance of separate educational systems or in-stitutions for pupils of the two sexes, if these systems or institutions offer equivalent access to education, provide a teaching staff with qualifications of the same standard as well as school premises and equipment of the same quality, and afford the opportunity to take the same or equivalent courses of study;

(b) The establishment or maintenance, for religious or linguistic reasons, of separate educational systems or institutions offering an education which is in keeping with the wishes of the pupil’s parents or legal guardians, if participation in such systems or attendance at such institutions is optional and if the education provided conforms to such standards as may be laid down or approved by the competent authorities, in particular for education of the same level ;

(c) The establishment or maintenance of private educational institutions, if the object of the institutions is not to secure the exclusion of any group but to provide educational facilities in addition to those provided by the public authorities, if the institutions are conducted in accordance with that object, and if the education provided conforms with such standards as may be laid down or approved by the competent authorities, in particular for education of the same level.

Article 3

In order to eliminate and prevent discrimination within the meaning of this Convention, the States Parties thereto undertake:

(a) To abrogate any statutory provisions and any administrative instructions and to discontinue any administrative practices which involve discrimination in education;

(b) To ensure, by legislation where necessary, that there is no discrimination in the admission of pupils to educational institutions;

(c) Not to allow any differences of treatment by the public authorities between nationals, except on the basis of merit or need, in the matter of school fees and the grant of scholarships or other forms of assistance to pupils and necessary permits and facilities for the pursuit of studies in foreign countries ;

(d) Not to allow, in any form of assistance granted by the public authorities to educational institutions, any restrictions or preference based solely on the ground that pupils belong to a particular group;

(e) To give foreign nationals resident within their territory the same access to education as that given to their own nationals.

Article 4

The States Parties to this Convention undertake furthermore to formulate, develop and apply a national policy which, by methods appropriate to the circumstances and to national usage, will tend to promote equality of opportunity and of treatment in the matter of education and in particular:

(a) To make primary education free and compulsory; make secondary education in its different forms generally available and accessible to all; make higher education equally accessible to all on the basis of individual capacity; assure compliance by all with the obligation to attend school prescribed by law;

(b) To ensure that the standards of education are equivalent in all public educational institutions of the same level, and that the conditions relating to the quality of the education provided are also equivalent;

(c) To encourage and intensify by appropriate methods the education of persons who have not received any primary education or who have not completed the entire primary education course and the continuation of their education on the basis of individual capacity;

(d) To provide training for the teaching profession without discrimination.

Article 5

1.The States Parties to this Convention agree that:

(a) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms; it shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace;

(b) It is essential to respect the liberty of parents and, where applicable, of legal guardians, firstly to choose for their children institutions other than those maintained by the public authorities but conforming to such minimum educational standards as may be laid down or approved by the competent authorities and, secondly, to ensure in a manner consistent with the procedures followed in the State for the application of its legislation, the religious and moral education of the children in conformity with their own convictions; and no person or group of persons should be compelled to receive religious instruction inconsistent with his or their convictions;

(c) It is essential to recognize the right of members of national minorities to carry on their own educational activities, including the maintenance of schools and, depending on the educational policy of each State, the use or the teaching of their own language, provided however:

(i) That this right is not exercised in a manner which prevents the members of these minorities from understanding the culture and language of the community as a whole and from participating in its activities, or which prejudices national sovereignty;

(ii) That the standard of education is not lower than the general standard laid down or approved by the competent authorities; and

(iii) That attendance at such schools is optional.

2.The States Parties to this Convention undertake to take all necessary measures to ensure the application of the principles enunciated in paragraph 1 of this Article.

Article 6

In the application of this Convention, the States Parties to it undertake to pay the greatest attention to any recommendations hereafter adopted by the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization defining the measures to be taken against the different forms of discrimination in education and for the purpose of ensuring equality of opportunity and treatment in education.

Article 7

The States Parties to this Convention shall in their periodic reports submitted to the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization on dates and in a manner to be determined by it, give information on the legislative and administrative provisions which they have adopted and other action which they have taken for the application of this Convention, including that taken for the formulation and the development of the national policy defined in Article 4 as well as the results achieved and the obstacles encountered in the application of that policy.

Article 8

Any dispute which may arise between any two or more States Parties to this Convention concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention, which is not settled by negotiation shall at the request of the parties to the dispute be referred, failing other means of settling the dispute, to the International Court of Justice for decision.

Article 9

Reservations to this Convention shall not be permitted.

Article 10

This Convention shall not have the effect of diminishing the rights which individuals or groups may enjoy by virtue of agreements concluded between two or more States, where such rights are not contrary to the letter or spirit of this Convention.

Article 11

This Convention is drawn up in English, French, Russian and Spanish, the four texts being equally authoritative.

Article 12

1. This Convention shall be subject to ratification or acceptance by States Members of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization in accordance with their respective constitutional procedures.

2. The instruments of ratification or acceptance shall be deposited with the Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

Article 13

1. This Convention shall be open to accession by all States not Members of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization which are invited to do so by the Executive Board of the Organization.

2. Accession shall be effected by the deposit of an instrument of accession with the Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

Article 14

This Convention shall enter into force, three months after the date of the deposit of the third instrument of ratification, acceptance or accession, but only with respect to those States which have deposited their respective instruments on or before that date. It shall enter into force with respect to any other State three months after the deposit of its instrument of ratification, acceptance or accession.

Article 15

The States Parties to this Convention recognize that the Convention is applicable not only to their metropolitan territory but also to all non-self-governing, trust, colonial and other territories for the international relations of which they are responsible; they undertake to consult, if necessary, the governments or other competent authorities of these territories on or before ratification, acceptance or accession with a view to securing the application of the Convention to those territories, and to notify the Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization of the territories to which it is accordingly applied, the notification to take effect three months after the date of its receipt.

Article 16

1. Each State Party to this Convention may denounce the Convention on its own behalf or on behalf of any territory for whose international relations it is responsible.

2. The denunciation shall be notified by an instrument in writing, deposited with the Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

3. The denunciation shall take effect twelve months after the receipt of the instrument of denunciation.

Article 17

The Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization shall inform the States Members of the Organization, the States not members of the Organization which are referred to in Article 13, as well as the United Nations, of the deposit of all the instruments of ratification, acceptance and accession provided for in Articles 12 and 13, and of the notifications and denunciations provided for in Articles 15 and 16 respectively.

Article 18

1. This Convention may be revised by the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Any such revision shall, however, bind only the States which shall become Parties to the revising convention.

2. If the General Conference should adopt a new convention revising this Convention in whole or in part, then, unless the new convention otherwise provides, this Convention shall cease to be open to ratification, acceptance or accession as from the date on which the new revising convention enters into force.

Article 19

In conformity with Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations, this Convention shall be registered with the Secretariat of the United Nations at the request of the Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

Done in Paris, this fifteenth day of December 1960, in two authentic copies bearing the signatures of the President of the eleventh session of the General Conference and of the Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, which shall be deposited in the archives of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and certified true copies of which shall be delivered to all the States referred to in Articles 12 and 13 as well as to the United Nations.